Expert System (ES) Questions 2018

expert system introduction

What is an Expert System (ES) :

An expert system is a software that uses a human expert knowledge and experience in a particular field to simulate the judgment and behavior of a human using artificial intelligence.

Characteristics of Expert System software:
1. Performance is very Fast as Software is using Artificial intelligible (AI).
2. Its Engine understand Situations very smoothly.
3. Results are very Reliable as using Expert Knowledge
4. Highly responsive in a competitive environment.

Capabilities of Expert Systems
The expert system is capable in following things:

  • Assisting human in Complex decision making problems
  • Demonstrating technical issues and solution instantly
  • Deriving a very comprehensive  and to the point solution
  • Diagnosing patients issues and giving advice
  • Explaining situations with logical reasoning.
  • Interpreting input data
  • Predicting results with high accuracy
  • Justifying the conclusion with explanations.
  • Suggesting alternative options to a issue
  • Robots system expert: They have been used to perform very accurate operation i.e brain operation

These Systems are capable of:

  • Substituting human decision making
  • Possessing human information
  • Producing accurate output for knowledge base
  • Refining their own knowledge with machine learning


Expert System Question 1

Through the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Expert Systems can imitate human thinking and behavior for the purpose of reasoning and reaching conclusions.


(a) Briefly describe key components of an Expert System.
(b) List four key benefits of AI over human intelligence.
(c) Describe by way of an example as to how an expert system could be used in each of the following areas:

• Healthcare
• Prediction
• Human resource management
• Production
• Accounting

Key components of an expert system as follows:


(i) Knowledge base

It contains rules and facts from past experience. The knowledge base interfaces with a database in obtaining data to analyse a particular problem in deriving an expert conclusion.

(ii) Knowledge Acquisition Program

It includes: Knowledge Interface and Data Interface.

  • Knowledge Interface:
    It allows the expert to enter knowledge into the system without the traditional mediation of a software engineer.
  • Data Interface:
    It enables the expert system to collect data from non–human resources, such as measurement instruments in a power plant.

(iii) User Interface

It enables users to interact with the system. Through the user interface, the Expert System, puts questions to the users and they reply by providing the required information.

(iv) Inference Engine

It executes the reasoning to decide which rules apply and allocates priorities.

(v) Explanation Engine

It explains how a particular fact was inferred.

Key benefits of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) over human intelligence are as follows:

(i) AI and its expertise are permanent, whereas human experts may leave the business.
(ii) AI can be easily copied.
(iii) AI is consistent whereas human experts and decision makers may not be so consistent.
(iv) AI can be documented electronically.


Recognising diseases or other conditions based on displayed signs and symptoms and suggesting possible cure.


Inferential systems like weather forecasting.

Human resource management

HR manager may determine whether the company is in compliance with an array of government employment laws.


A machine may be programmed to suggest possible reasons for a malfunction.


By processing the available data, decisions such as budgeting, tax planning, project management etc can be carried out.

Expert System Question 2

The management of  Auditor Forum (AF) is considering to install an Expert System as it is concerned about losing the expertise of some of its key employees. However, the CEO is concerned that huge cost would have to be incurred which would far outweigh the benefits.


(a) To what extent an Expert System can substitute the expertise of a key employee?
(b) What other benefits can be secured by deploying an Expert System?
(c) Limitations and constraints which the company must consider before acquiring the expert system.
(a) Expert system can be used to acquire knowledge base from existing employees based on their past experience.

The Expert system can substitute the expertise of key employees in a complex situation/decision provided:

  •  The key employee whose expertise is needed had faced such situation or similar situation in the past.
  •  The key employee has stored his strategy to deal with situation or decision taken in such situation, in the knowledge base of the expert system.

Top Benefits of Expert System

  • It can reduce the number of people or it can reduce the coordination and consultancy cost between employees when a complex decision is to be made.
  •  The decisions made by using its knowledge database would be consistent while human decisions may sometimes be inconsistent and affected by other factors.
  •  The decisions and knowledge is documented, hence any decision can subsequently be justified.
    Decisions can be made quickly.
  •  This knowledge base containing key employees expertise, remain with the company while employees can leave any time.
  •  Expert system will carry out a detailed analysis while a human may forget to consider many things.
    It can work continuously, while a human being has his/her limitations.

Limitations and Constraints of Expert System

  • Expert systems are expensive, as they require initial cost and cost of maintenance.
  • Humans are naturally more creative as compared to computers.
  • If relevant information is not present in its knowledge base, the system is unable to make a decision. In such a situation, further input of data / information is required.
  • In expert system, Domain experts are not available to explain the logic and reasoning.
  • Wrong decisions might be taken on account of errors in the knowledge base.

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